Usually PDR projects involve interests of a large number of stakeholders and each stakeholder perceives success of project through its own perspective.
Post-Disaster Reconstruction and Change: Communities' Perspectives - CRC Press Book
The purpose of this research study is twofold; firstly, it aims at substantiating the significance of affected community, as most important stakeholder in PDR project. Secondly, it aims at revealing the importance of affected community view point and its consideration for success and adoptability of a PDR project. This research study has concluded that affected community is an important stakeholder and consideration of their viewpoint and involving them in decision making process, especially in planning and implementation phase is very important for success and sustainability of a PDR projects.
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Despite employing huge financial and other resources, disregarding and disengagement of community could lead a project to the failure. These findings also helped to outline a few recommendations for the practitioners to ensure success of PDR projects. Second, the emphasis on participatory practices obscures many limitations and manipulations that suppress local power differentials.
The third form of tyranny addresses the dominance of the participatory method, noting that the overwhelming acceptance of participation, particularly the goals and values expressed, has limited dialogue and even consideration of other methods for cultivating development Christians and Speer According to Christians and Speer the theoretical ideal of participation is not functioning as the tool for liberation and distribution of power but participation are described as largely maintaining existing power relationships, though masking this power behind the rhetoric and techniques of participation Christians and Speer Even though participation critiques and obstacles, gap between subjectivity and objectivity, it has too positive impacts that encourage practitioners to apply it in reconstruction.
Impacts such as emphasis was placed on earthquake-safe knowledge at the grassroots level Jigyasu , a sense of ownership, reinforce their local capacities and resilience and empower their community Sliwinski , improve the community and the respective government agencies relationships, understand each other, trust to each other Buchy and Hoverman , mobilizing marginalized groups, ensuring that grassroots voices have access to higher levels of decision-making, strengthening existing processes and creating new ones, creating networks of nested organizations and institutions, and nested deliberation processes Robinson and Berkes , emergence of a vibrant, heterogeneous, agonistic and lively group, create and critique relevant knowledge Tsouvalis and Waterton , to operational cost and time reduction, and reduce the negative psychological impact of earthquakes Ophiyandri, Amaratunga et al.
The systems approach and life cycle has been applied simultaneity in this study in order to present participation in post disaster reconstruction. The systems approach allows a comprehensive and cross-disciplinary view of the many apparently separate facets of a complex process such as post-disaster reconstruction. Johnson, Lizarralde et al. The life cycle development process seen as holistic view of point that pay attention to all aspects of the life cycle of a product.
In the systems approach according to Johnson, Lizarralde et al. In the life cycle process, disaster assumed as a product that effective disaster management required participation of all stockholders. The life cycle of a managed disaster divided into phases, start at the same time the disaster begins. The life cycle includes restoration and reconstruction of facilities, services, and human resources to a quality, reliability, security, and survivability level equivalent to at least the same risk level as that of the pre-disaster situation.
The life cycle ends with a process and vulnerability improvement phase intended to prevent or reduce the impact of a similar disaster and improve the management process for use in future disasters. Houck, Kim et al. Post-disaster reconstruction is a complex process involving a number of interrelated activities. The level of complexity will vary, depending on the scale and nature of the disaster and the corresponding response of the population and the institutions involved.
Different project cycles are likely to be occurring simultaneously at different levels and for different purposes wherever people are organizing some element of the response. Jha, Barenstein et al. Due to nature of disaster and local condition different managed disaster life-cycle model is presented Alexander ; Sharma ; Moe and Pathranarakul ; Huggins ; Shaluf ; Collins ; Diwan ; Coppola ; Paul For example Moe and Pathranarakul state: "Disaster management includes generic five phases, namely : 1 prediction; 2 warning; 3 emergency relief; 4 rehabilitation; and 5 reconstruction.
Moe and Pathranarakul Coppola identified comprehensive four-phase approach disaster management. This approach contains four distinct components: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery Coppola The necessary stages of reconstruction distinguished by Lizarralde, Johnson et al.
Identifying local needs for post-disaster recovery in Nepal
But complete actions and activities commonly performed in the recovery period of a disaster include:. Reassessment of hazard risk Coppola Life cycle of disaster in Iran is a little different from. First of all reconstruction focus is on reconstruction of houses and secondly the life cycle of disaster differs from one disaster to another, but mainly process are:. Iran has been experienced devastated earthquake in recent years. Therefore the most important reconstruction project allocated to these areas in Iran. Participation in any area will discussed separately. On 20th June, at AM local time a disastrous 7.
The epicenter was near the city of Rasht -center of Gilan province- leaving more than half a million people homeless, over villages devastated and about 15 cities damaged. Three cities and villages were ruined. Estimated 40, to 50, people killed more than 60, injured , or more homeless remained, the Rasht-Qazvin-Zanjan area damaged extensively.
Damages were incurred in three provinces, and some whole villages were completely buried in the huge landslides which happened as a side effect. Some towns also witnessed liquefaction and thus, sustained great damages. According to the official reports, more than 30, were killed and about 25, injured. A total of 39, urban residential and commercial buildings in Bam and Baravat, and 32, rural units in over villages suffered damage HFIR The earthquake left 70, people homeless Eshghi and Asheri The number of casualty and related social issues, extensive destruction of the historical town, and also the lack of good experience in the reconstruction of a city made the reconstruction project of Bam more complicated.
The reconstruction of Bam was the most important post-disaster reconstruction project among recent reconstructions in Iran. Many factors, such as concern over the government and international agencies, the new managerial approaches, and the application of appropriate reconstruction methods, made it different from the other reconstruction programs.
It provided useful experience and lessons about post-disaster reconstruction programs. The reconstruction of Bam was the first experience for Iran in the reconstruction of an extensively damaged middle-sized city with a high rate of human loss and destruction. On 30 and 31 March , a series of earthquakes ranging from 2. The strongest ones hit Doroud and Borujerd districts which incurred some injuries and 72 casualties as well as serious damage to over 35 houses and physical infra-structures in the area. This earthquake led to relatively small number of casualties and deaths.
Although the loss of life was less than similar disasters like the earthquake in Bam and Gilan and Zanjan , the building and infrastructure damages were assessed high. In the recovery process, the government didn't support from the intermediate phase of "temporary settlement". This was due to the favorable weather conditions and because most of the residents of Lorestan province participated well in reconstruction process. Consequently, people moved directly from emergency shelters into the permanent ones.
The reconstruction had a pyramid structure in Gilan and Zanjan. A headquarter was established as central office and destructed area has been divided into 17 subarea. Any part had its especial corresponding that ware called Setad Moin SM. They were HFI branches throughout the country. HFI has been chosen as main executive of reconstruction but other organizations, NGOs and individual participated in reconstruction.
Main participation policy was adopted as follow:. House owners are construction manager and they are responsible for design and implementation of their houses. The role of government is participation in affairs that house owner couldn't carry out their duties. Villages with relatively high destruction, they need to prepare rural physical guide plan. Reconstruction should be started after approval rural physical guide plan.
Villages with relatively medium destruction, house reconstruction permission issued based on rural physical guide plan. Villages with partial destruction, some houses need to repair and limited rural houses need to rebuilt. Reconstruction began after the establishment of Representatives Headquarters on Rural area.
The first step was the removal of debris that people were involved. Simultaneity small unit as contemporary shelter were built. It changed to core unite of residential house for further development in some area. Small rooms that called "Fabian" distributed among damaged people. But most important once was the financial help to any family to build their building. Concurrent some basic material of construction distributed between households. It helps people built their own house based on their wants and needs. People were dividing in to three groups including: farmers, ranchers and tenants based on their livelihood.
The housing units were designed and built that it emphasized on the residential function. The socio and economical function of house were ignored in rural areas. Therefore majority of residential units that were designed and built by HFI with original plans were different. They looked at houses as one dimensional factor. Base on this approach they had a pre assumption that house is only as a dormitory. But the traditional houses were a part of socio-economy life. This assumption led to abandon the proposal plans by people.
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The main point was that villager livelihood was too important, but it was ignored by architects. In first category of villages' classification, some of villages were displaced.
Some of villages were mixed to gather in this procedure. This was done without people participation or limited participation and enough studies. It led to some conflicts and problems over the time in result. The second step villages' plans have been designed on pressures of time limitation and cold season. Local people didn't play critical role in this phase too. Therefore village plans was too simplified and it did not adopt with socio-economic and spatio-locational needs. Unadjusted plans led to other problems again.
The traditional houses were made of mud brick and wooden roof in north stricken areas of Zajnan province. HFI proposed a kind of construction using concrete frames and brick walls.
This model had serious differences with the traditional model. Thus it needed a capacity building movement. The following methods were used for training villager:. Villager training by Show Maquette, Pictures and posters, slide shows and maps in rural areas. In this project the HFI tried to organize some groups in some area as facilitators, calling "rural councils" in addition.